It is clear from all of the preceding discussion that the pressure at the bottom of the borehole must be accurately determined if the leak off or fracture pressure of the formation is not to be exceeded. When the drilling fluid is circulating through the drillstring, the borehole pressure at the bottom of the annulus will be greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the mud. The extra pressure is due to the frictional pressure required to pump the fluid up the annulus. This frictional pressure must be added to the pressure due to the hydrostatic pressure from the colom of mud to get a true representation of the pressure acting against the formation a the bottom of the well. An equivalent circulating density (ECD) can then be calculated from the sum of the hydrostatic and frictional pressure divided by the true vertical depth of the well. The ECD for a system can be calculated from:

where ,
ECD= effective circulating density (ppg)
MW= mud weight (ppg)
Pd = annulus frictional pressure drop at a given circulation rate (psi)
D = depth (ft)

The ECD of the fluid should be continuously monitored to ensure that the pressure at the formation below the shoe, due to the ECD of the fluid and system, does not exceed the leak off test pressure.

Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University